Multi-channel high-speed synchronous data acquisition is the key to realize the sensor array measurement system. In this paper, a multi-channel high-speed synchronous data acquisition system with data cache function is designed for the measurement requirements of large-scale sensor array. Based on the daisy chain structure, the system implements two-way interaction of signal flow and data flow through FPGA control chip and backboard network protocol. The system structure, network layout and hardware design have been optimized by signal integrity simulation. Based on the proposed control logic and communication protocol, high-speed synchronous data acquisition of 384 channels with 50KPS is realized. Experimental results show that the designed data acquisition system can realize multi-channel synchronous measurement and achieve a certain precision.