In the traditional transmission network planning, the primary selection scheme is generally provided by professionals. Determine the best solution through technical and economic comparison. Combining transmission channel expansion and path design, this paper established a double-layer operation optimization model for transmission channel planning, and considering the influence of geographical conditions such as construction conditions and topographic geological conditions on path planning. The top-level model aims at the economics of transmission planning, and the underlying model optimizes the transmission path by targeting the total cost of the geographic environment. The selected line set obtained by the bottom layer optimization returns to the top layer model for transmission network planning, and the genetic algorithm is used to solve the model. Finally, the simulation analysis of the modified Garver-6 node system shows that the transmission channel planning scheme obtained by the method proposed in this paper can effectively adapt to the actual situation of the project site and ensure the economic benefits of the transmission network.